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An Analysis of Graduate School Careers in Three Universities: Differences in Attainment Patterns Across Academic Programs and Demographic Groups

Zwick, Rebecca J.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Subject/Key Words:
Graduate Record Examinations Board, Academic Achievement, Females, Foreign Students, Graduate Study, Minority Graduate Education Project, Minority Students, School Holding Power


The graduate careers of nearly 5,000 Ph.D.-seeking students from 11 departments in each of three major universities were investigated, with a special focus on minority students. Minorities and women were found to be underrepresented in graduate school and to have generally lower candidacy and graduation rates than their White and male counterparts. In two of the three schools, foreign students had higher candidacy and graduation rates than did White Americans. Also, in two of the three schools, the percent-age of foreign students increased substantially in recent years. A more general finding was that the candidacy and graduation rates in the eight years following matriculation were higher in quantitatively oriented departments than in the humanities and social sciences. In general, undergraduate grades and Graduate Record Examinations scores had only a minimal association with the attainment of candidacy and graduation. Among these academically select students, nonacademic factors may play a crucial role in determining who ultimately attains the doctoral degree.

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