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Population Invariance of Score Linking: Theory and Applications to Advanced Placement Program Examinations AP NEAT

Dorans, Neil J. (Ed.)
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Advanced Placement Program (AP), Non-Equivalent-Groups Anchor Test (NEAT) Design, Score Equating, Gender Differences, Nonequivalent Groups, Population Invariance, Region Effects, Self-Equating, Test Linking


Test equating methods are intended to produce interchangeable scores and should not be strongly influenced by the group of examinees on which they are computed. Advanced Placement Program (AP) exams, which include both multiple-choice (MC) items and constructed-response (CR) items, provide an environment for studying the effects of subpopulations on the estimation of equating functions. The exams are equated to past forms using an internal anchor-test design in which the linking items are restricted to MC items due to the immediate disclosure of the CR sections of the tests (precluding their reuse as linking items). This collection of closely related papers uses the variety of cases provided by AP exams to assess the effects of subpopulations on various important aspects of test equating. Earlier versions of these papers were prepared for a symposium at the 2002 Annual Meetings of the National Council on Measurement in Education.

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