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Studies of Possible Effects of GRE ScoreSelect on Subgroup Differences in GRE General Test Scores GRE SES

Klieger, David M.; Kotloff, Lauren J.; Belur, Vinetha; Schramm-Possinger, Megan; Holtzman, Steven; Bunde, Hezekiah
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Graduate School, Graduate Record Examination (GRE), Test Scores, Fairness, Diversity, Equity, Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Citizenship, Age, Parent Education, Socioeconomic Status (SES), Higher Education Assessment, Score Reporting, Score Choice, High Stakes Testing


Intended consequences of giving applicants the option to select which test scores to report include potentially reducing measurement error and inequity in applicants’ prior test familiarity. Our first study determined whether score choice options resulted in unintended consequences for lower performing subgroups by detrimentally increasing score gaps in ways and for reasons that the research literature had suggested. Our follow-up study explored possible determinants of changes in score gaps attributable to score choice options. Using GRE SCORESELECT, the score choice system for the GRE general test, we concluded that unintended consequences were few, small in magnitude, and usually undetectable. To the extent that unintended consequences occurred, they were limited to effects for citizenship subgroups and generally benefited lower performing subgroups.

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