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TOEFL® Family Research Program

Advancing the field of English-language learning and assessment

Select a topic below to learn more about the TOEFL® Family Research Program.

Scoring and Interpretation

The TOEFL research program conducts research to identify the information score users need to appropriately and accurately interpret test results and make decisions based on test scores.

Interpreting the relationships between TOEFL iBT® scores and GPA: Language proficiency, policy, and profiles

Analyzes test scores of approximately 2,000 Chinese students at a U.S. university and explains how institutions can use TOEFL iBT test scores to make admissions decisions.  

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Using the Common European Framework of Reference to facilitate score interpretations for young learners' English language proficiency assessments

Provides a brief history of the development of the Common European Framework of Reference and the corresponding proficiency level descriptors about students' language knowledge and skills.  

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An investigation of the use of TOEFL Junior® Standard scores for ESL placement decisions in secondary education

Reports on analyses of test data and teachers' judgments suggesting TOEFL Junior test scores are related to English teachers' evaluations of appropriate ESL class placement.   

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Developing and validating band levels and descriptors for reporting overall examinee performance

Explains the process for developing proficiency level descriptors indicating what test takers at six TOEFL Junior Comprehensive score levels can do.

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Facilitating the interpretation of English language proficiency scores: Combining scale anchoring and test score mapping methodologies

Discusses proficiency level descriptors that describe what test takers with scores at four different score levels can do on each of the three sections of the TOEFL ITP® Level 1 test.  

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